The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment, abbreviated as CEFR, is a guideline used to describe achievements of learners of foreign languages across Europe and, increasingly, in other countries. It was put together by the Council of Europe as the main part of the project “Language Learning for European Citizenship” between 1989 and 1996. Its main aim is to provide a method of learning, teaching and assessing which applies to all languages in Europe.
The CEFR was developed to provide a common basis for the explicit description of objectives, content and methods in second/foreign language education.
• adopts an action-oriented approach, describing language learning outcomes in terms of language use;
• has three principal dimensions: language activities, the domains in which they occur, and the competences on which we draw when we engage in them;
• divides language activities into four kinds: reception (listening and reading), production (spoken and written), interaction (spoken and written), and mediation (translating and interpreting);
• provides a taxonomic description of four domains of language use – public, personal, educational, professional – for each of which it specifies locations, institutions, persons, objects, events, operations, and texts.
For the above mentioned competences, the CEFR defines six common reference levels (A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2), using “can do” descriptors to define the learner/user’s proficiency at each level.
The six reference levels are becoming widely accepted as the European standard for grading an individual’s language proficiency. The common reference levels provide a basis for comparing second/foreign language curricula, textbooks, courses and exams. Together with the rest of the CEFR’s descriptive apparatus, they can also be used to support the design of curricula, teaching programmes, learning materials, and assessment instruments.
A basic command of the language, familiar with everyday expressions and able to make very simple sentences.
I can recognise familiar words and very basic phrases concerning myself, my family and immediate concrete surroundings when people speak slowly and clearly.
I can understand familiar names, words and very simple sentences, for example on notices and posters or in catalogues.
I can interact in a simple way provided the other person is prepared to repeat or rephrase things at a slower rate of speech and help me formulate what I’m trying to say. I can ask and answer simple questions in areas of immediate need or on very familiar topics.
I can use simple phrases and sentences to describe where I live and people I know.
I can write a short, simple postcard, for example sending holiday greetings. I can fill in forms with personal details, for example entering my name, nationality and address on a hotel registration form.
Fonologia e scrittura
Pronomi e aggettivi
Preposizioni semplici e articolate